[Powered By https://login.yahoo.com/config/login_verify2?&.src=ym]
ЭРДЭМ ДЭЛГЭРҮҮЛЭХ БОЛОВСРОЛЫН ТӨВ : METHODOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENT TREND A CREATIVE INDUSTRY

METHODOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENT TREND A CREATIVE INDUSTRY

METHODOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENT TREND A CREATIVE INDUSTRY

Erkhemtugs.J, Mongolian State University of Arts and Culture

Abstract: The world’s understanding of development is shifting considerably to improving the competitiveness stability in a long term and developing a knowledge economy. It is visible that the development tendency of countries is a knowledge-based economy and it is the key force to improve a competitive capacity and facilitate the development of certain countries. Thus this knowledge-based economy and knowledge economy is described as basic economic characteristics for industrialized countries in the today’s globalized century. Quality change and social and economical main processes in a modern economic theory is activated by innovation and change of industrial indicators and is mainly expressed with information, spirit and innovation Following this shift, we are demanded to identify successful ways to improve cultural and creative industry. This article describes the methodology of development trend a cultural and creative industry.

Keywords: cultural industries, creative industries, creative economy

Introduction

The rising political interest in the creative economy has led several experts to study the effects of creative industries and cultural activities on the development of a region/country. The literature in the field of creative and cultural economics has followed two alternative paths of research: one centred on places and the other on industries. Within the perspective of the creative city, academics and decision-makers have sustained the idea of creating cultural amenities for the regeneration of urban centres (Bianchini et al., 1988; Landry et al., 1996; Landry, 2003), assuming that environments characterized by diversity, tolerance and openness contribute to the generation and diffusion of new ideas and innovations. The industry-related perspective (DCMS, 2007, 2010) departs from the premise that industries related to the creative and cultural sectors comprise privileged vehicles of local and global development. New theoretical approaches based on the above-mentioned perspectives, and put forward by Florida (2002) and Scott (1997, 2003), brought novel concepts to the creative class and the cultural economy of urban centres. In a complementary line of research, several approaches to measurement have also been developed (UNCTAD, 2008; DCMS, 2010), gathering data on creative occupations and creative industries (2008).

Despite all the novelties and progress, the „original sin‟ intractably remains - the vagueness or

even lack of clarification regarding the definitions and estimations of creative industries, creative class, cultural activities, creative city, or cultural labour force. Indeed, several authors frequently use the expressions „creative industries‟ and „cultural activities‟ synonymously, overlooking their conceptual idiosyncrasies and contributing to the spread of imprecision and ambiguity, both at theoretical and empirical level (UNCTAD, 2008). So far, the literature has barely come to agreement on what comprises the concepts of creative and cultural economics, as well as their precise boundaries and extent.

This paper intends to critically review the growing corpus of literature on approaches to the measurement of creative industries, namely in terms of existing definitions and taxonomies. Additionally, it discusses the most appropriate industry-based methodology by estimating the weight of Core Creative Industries based on a unique database for Portugal. Apart from serving as the basis to adequately compare the distinct methodologies to estimate creative industries, this exercise adds to the literature by providing empirical evidence on the weight of creative industries in a middle developed country. In the next section, we review the existing methodological approaches that aim to group and quantify the creative industries. In Section 3, we map the industry-based methodologies in terms of International Standard Industrial Codes (ISIC) and the Portuguese industrial classification.

Definitions and the classification of the sector

The second observation is that the terms used - cultural industry, cultural sector, and creative industry - are fluid and lack definition. South African research in the cultural industry has changed focus as international definitions have changed. The first study in South Africa borrowed the definition of the cultural industry from both UNESCO and the work of the Department of Culture and Media Services (DCMS) in the UK but adapted the parameter and scope of the sectors to the South African context as well as the research objectives. Thus the Cultural Industry Growth Strategy (CIGS) investigated only 4 of the commercially active sectors, music, film and video, publishing and craft. In CIGS, the term cultural industry was used to refer to different types of cultural expression which are embedded with symbolic meaning as highlighted by the UNESCO definitions (UNESCO, 1982). It followed that since culture provides important public benefits, public policy should provide support for cultural industries. Using this definition cultural industries consist of goods whose primary economic value is derived from their cultural value or symbolic value. This definition includes what have been called the ”classical” cultural industries broadcast media, film, publishing, recorded music, design, architecture, new media – and the ”traditional arts” - visual art, crafts, theatre, music theatre, concerts and performance, literature, museums and galleries – all those activities that have been eligible for public funding as ”art”. The case for public policy and specific interventions to ensure widespread cultural participation and expression is now well accepted and understood that if left entirely to the market, there will be a limitation on the production and consumption of culture and hence ”a significant democratic deficit both for individuals and society as a whole”. Further policy work in South Africa, specifically for the Gauteng Government through the Creative Industries Development Framework5, used the term creative industries to broaden the scope of engagement and align discussions with the broader international debates about the creative economy and the role of creative industries as a core of the creative economy. The CIGS report and the Gauteng CIDF recognised that at the heart of creative industries is creativity. This quality can also be found in industries which have creativity as their key ingredient such as advertising and architecture which are included in the definition of the creative industries in the UK but not as yet in South Africa. Increasingly, the changing DCMS definitions used by the British Council have influenced the South African community of creative industry researchers, consultants and policy advisors as well as government officials such that recently the term creative economy has been adopted, both for the DAC’s Creative Mapping Study in collaboration with the British Council and by the Gauteng Government in their branding of Creative Gauteng. In this usage, the larger set of creative industries (of which cultural industries are a part) as well as the broader cluster of industries which support them is what we call the creative economy. As UNCTAD has explained: “Creative Economy is an evolving concept based on creative assets potentially generating economic growth; it can foster income generation, job creation, export earnings as well as social inclusion, cultural diversity and human development; it embraces economic, cultural and social aspects interacting with technology and tourism objectives; is a set of knowledge-based activities with development dimension and cross-cutting linkages at macro/micro levels to the overall economy; and it is a feasible development option calling for innovative intra-ministerial policy responses” (UNCTAD, 2006). From industry mapping efforts in the city state of Singapore a useful model for describing the creative industries has emerged (Heng, Choo and Ho, 2003) which we have adapted to include the creative economy (Figure 1).

This model of the creative economy has emerged from industry mapping efforts in the city state of Singapore in which upstream and downstream industries are clearly outlined (Heng, Choo and Ho, 2003). Using this approach, the creative industries comprise two distinct groups of activities; basic and applied arts industries. Together with the distribution industries, these form part of the broader “copyright industries”. Basic or ”upstream” arts then, refers to traditional art forms such as the performing, literary and visual arts, whereas ”downstream’ arts” refer to the applied arts such as advertising, design, publishing and mediarelated activities. The value of this model is that it allows for an holistic approach to the sector which incorporates all activities – commercial and non-commercial and, crucially, emphasises the symbiotic relationships between all the sectors comprising the creative industries; a growth or decline in one area will have a concomitant effect on another. While “upstream” art activities may have commercial value in themselves, ”downstream” art activities derive their commercial value principally from their applications in other economic activities.

Six popular models, among others, are extensively presented and discussed in literature: the DCMS model, the Symbolic texts model, the Concentric Circles model and the WIPO copyright model, the UIS trade-related model, the Americans for the Arts model, each one distinguishing between core and peripheral industries (Tables 1):

· DCMS model (UK Department of Culture, Media and Sport, The Creative Industries Mapping Document 2001, London: DCMS, 2001): Based on activities requiring creativity, skill and talent, with potential for wealth and job creation through exploitation of their intellectual property.

· Symbolic texts model (David Hesmondhalgh, The Cultural Industries, London: Sage, 2002): Based on industries concerned with industrial production and dissemination of symbolic texts.

· Concentric circles model (David Throsby, Economics and Culture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001): Based on origin and diffusion of creative ideas in sound, text and image from core creative arts.

· WIPO copyright model (World Intellectual Property Organisation, Guide on Surveying the Economic Contribution of the Copyright-based Industries, Geneva: WIPO, 2003): Based on industries involved directly or indirectly in the creation, manufacture, production, broadcast and distribution of copyrighted works.

· UIS trade-related model (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, International Flows of Selected Cultural Goods and Services 1994–2003: Defining and Capturing the Flows of Global Cultural Trade, Montreal: UIS, 2005): Based on cultural goods and services entering international trade.

· Americans for the Arts model (Americans for the Arts, Creative Industries 2005: The Congressional Report, Washington DC: Americans for the Arts, 2005): Based on businesses involved with the production or distribution of the arts (arts-centric businesses).


Table 1. Creative industries: industry based approaches and templates

1. DCMS model

2. Symbolic Texts Model

3. Concentric Circles Model

Advertising

Architecture

Art and antiques market

Crafts

Design

Fashion

Film and video

Music

Performing arts

Publishing

Software

Television and radio

Video and computer games

Core cultural industries

Advertising

Film

Internet

Music

Publishing

Television and radio

Video and computer games

Peripheral cultural industries

Creative arts

Borderline cultural industries

Consumer electronics

Fashion

Software

Sport

Core creative arts

Literature

Music

Performing arts

Visual arts

Other core cultural industries

Film

Museums and libraries

Wider cultural industries

Heritage services

Publishing

Sound recording

Television and radio

Video and computer games

Related industries

Advertising

Architecture

Design

Fashion

4. WIPO Copyright Model

5. UIS Trade-related Model

6. Americans for the Arts Model

Core copyright industries

Advertising

Collecting societies

Film and video

Music

Performing arts

Publishing

Software

Television and radio

Visual and graphic art

Interdependent copyright industries

Blank recording material

Consumer electronics

Musical instruments

Paper

Photocopiers, photographic equipment

Partial copyright industries

Architecture

Clothing, footwear

Design

Fashion

Household goods

Toys

Core cultural goods and services

Audiovisual services

Books

Copyright royalties

Heritage

Newspapers, periodicals

Recordings

Video games

Visual arts

Related cultural goods and services

Advertising

Architectural services

Audiovisual equipment

Information services

Musical instruments

Advertising

Architecture

Arts schools and services

Design

Film

Museums, zoos

Music

Performing arts

Publishing

Television and radio

Visual arts


Conclusion

Literature on the creative industries has barely come to a common agreement on what constitutes and delimits the creative and cultural activities, whether in terms of their conceptual definition or empirical methodologies.

Despite the intense debate that surrounds the definition and delimitation of creative industries, estimations of their weight in the economy, usually in terms of employment, were often made using disparate and non-comparable databases, involving information on distinct countries or regions.

This study intended to contribute to the systematization of a growing corpus of literature related with measurement approaches to the creative industries, namely in terms of existing concepts and methodologies. Six this purpose, we accomplished a thorough review of the literature on the matter, which allowed us map some of the most important industry-based approaches to measure and quantify creative industries: DCMS model, the Symbolic texts model, the Concentric Circles model and the WIPO copyright model, the UIS trade-related model, the Americans for the Arts model.

Notwithstanding the limitations, the methodological exercise pursued here will hopefully constitute a valuable contribution to the empirical research on the topic of creative industries.

References

1. Bianchini, F., Fisher, M., Montgomery, J., Worpole, K. (1988). City Cultures: the role of the arts in the revitalization of towns and cities. UK, Manchester: Centre for Local Economic Development Strategies.

2. Chow, K., Leo, K. (2005), “The economic contribution of copyright based industries in Singapore”, Review of Economic Research on Copyright Issues, 2(2): 127-148.

3. Cunningham, S. (2002), From cultural to creative industries: Theory, industry, and policyimplications.

4. Sara Santos Cruz., Aurora A.C. Teixeira (2012), Industry-based methodological approaches to the measurement of Creative Industries: a theoretical and empirical account.

5. Seminar on “New Directions in Research: Substance, Method and Critique”, held at Royal Society of Edinburgh, Scotland, 2007.

6. 2009 UNESCO Framework for Cultural Statistic

7. UNESCO World Report “Investing in Cultural Diversity and Intercultural Dialogue”, 2009

8. Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, UNESCO., 2005.10.20

9. Cultural policies in europe. from a state to a city-centered perspective on cultural generativity, Japan., 2010

10. Монголын соёлын үйлдвэрлэл, соёл, урлагийн хувьсал өөрчлөлт /Шинжлэх ухаан, технологийн төслийн тайлан/, СУСХ., 2013




start=-100 , cViewSize=50 , cPageCount=0

Сэтгэгдэлгүй байна

null

Сэтгэгдэл үлдээх



(нийтэд харагдахгүй)

(оруулах албагүй)
(HTML синтакс зөвшөөрөгдөөгүй)


(Зурган дээрх тоог оруулна уу)


 
ЗАХ ЗЭЭЛИЙН СУДАЛГАА, МАРКЕТИНГ, ХҮНИЙ НӨӨЦИЙН ТӨЛӨВЛӨГӨӨ, ЗӨВЛӨГӨӨ, СУРГАЛТ ЭРДЭМ ДЭЛГЭРҮҮЛЭХ БОЛОВСРОЛЫН ТӨВ 91012144